“Parts of the Brain and their function in the human body”
A brain is the central organ of the human nervous system and nervous system control everything from our senses to the muscles throughout our body. So when parts of the brain are damaged it can affect memory loss, body sensation, and personality also.
Brain damage occurs when the brain is starved of oxygen for a prolonged period of time. Young children and elderly people have a higher risk of brain damage.
Diseases and disorders which affect parts of the brain are:-
- BRAIN INJURY: – hematomas, blood clotting, cerebral edema.
- BRAIN TUMOR
- NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES:- Alzheimer’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia
- MENTAL DISORDERS:- post-traumatic stress disorder, Schizophrenia
Anyone who has brain injury needs immediate medical treatment. The effect of parts of the brain damage is determined by some neurological examination and testing such as X-rays, CT scans neuropsychological assessment. To prevent brain injury neurologist should ensure blood and oxygen is flowing properly to the brain and make sure that blood pressure is in controlled.
Parts of the Brain is composed of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.
The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain which is composed of the right hemisphere and left hemisphere. the two sides are connected by the bundle of Fibers called Copus Collasum, that transmit messages to one side to other. It performs many functions such as thought, emotions, touch, vision, speech, hearing learning etc. It is also called the cortex and is divided into four types of lobes Frontal Lobes, Parietal Lobes, Occipital Lobes, Temporal Lobes.
The frontal lobes are part of the Cerebral Cortex and are the largest of the brain’s structure. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Difficulty in planning or organizing
- Difficulty in speaking
- Personality changes
- Problems in walking
- Loss of thinking flexibility
- Loss of interest in life
- Difficulty in planning sequences such as making a cup of tea
- Lack of attention
This helps us understand space and distance, size, texture, and weight. These are constantly being updated as we move and interact with the world around us. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Poor hand-eye coordination
- Unable to focus on more than one object at a time.
- Difficulty in drawing
- Poor visual perception
- Loss of sensation in part of a body
- Agraphia (a problem in reading & writing)
- Anomia (difficulty naming objects)
- Difficulty in speaking
The occipital cortex is the main visual area of the brain, receiving advice from the retina. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Difficulty in recognizing colors
- Sight illusions
- Inability to recognize words
- Loss of vision on one side
The temporal lobes contain a large number of substructures. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Difficulty in identifying objects
- Aggressive behaviors
- Change in sexual interest
- Concentration in difficulties
- Difficulty in recognizing faces and names
- Seizure disorders
The cerebellum monitors and regulates motor behavior, especially automatic motions. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Nausea and dizziness
- Problems in balance and coordination
- Problems with coordination of limbs
- Abnormal eye movement
The brain stem consists of a group of structures that lie deep within the brain of the cerebral hemisphere and cervical spinal cord, including the medulla oblongata, the Pons, and midbrain. It has an essential part in maintaining homeostasis by controlling cognitive functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, consuming and consciousness. Symptoms associated with head injury include:-
- Double vision
- Weakness on one side of the body.
We can follow some rules to reduce the risk of brain damage:-
- Wear helmets during sports & cycling
- Wear seatbelts in cars, and drive slowly
- Never shake a child.
- Don’t use illegal drugs
- Use a window protector to keep young kids from falling out of windows.
- Never drink and drive
never shake a child
PLEASE FOLLOW HEALTHY LIFE HAPPY LIFE!